AC power and energy standard are maintained by Power/Energy Laboratory of NMIM. The function of the laboratory is to provide measurement and calibration of AC power and energy. In legal metrology, the laboratory involved in pattern approval of electricity meter used for trade.
AC & Low Frequency Laboratory are capable to generate and measure DC to 10 MHz and beyond covering voltage, current, and resistance parameters to support national AC & Low Frequency measurement activities. The chart illustrates the traceability for AC & Low Frequency in Malaysia.
The highest standards are primary Thermal Converters and AC DC Shunts maintained by utilizing comparison method of AC-DC. Different comparison methods for accurate RMS value determination of AC Voltage and AC Current at low frequencies are traceable to the national standard of AC Voltage and Current. The frequency range is from 10 Hz to 1 MHz with best uncertainty of 5 uV/V.
NMIM’s Time and Frequency laboratory maintains two high performance and three standard performance Caesium (Cs) atomic reference frequency standards. One of the high performance Cs reference frequency standards is designated as Malaysian National Frequency Standards (MNFS), with accuracy of ± 5 × 10-13 s .
With these standards and continuous All-in-View GPS time comparisons, where the data is contributed to Bureau Weights and Measures (BIPM) for the generation of the International Atomic Time (TAT) scale. NMIM is capable to provide traceability to the SI Unit of time interval for time and frequency measurement.
Malaysian Standard Time (MST) is UTC (NMLS) + 8 Hours, due to the time zone selected which is the longitude of 1200 East. UTC (NMLS) is currently defined to be the epoch of the 1 pulse per second timing signal output at the rear panel of the Malaysian National Frequency Standards. NMIM steers the frequency of the standard to maintain UTC(NMLS) to be within approximately 1 ms of the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
The high voltage and high current capabilities in the laboratory are described as follows:
|Systems||Parameter||Capability Range||Best Measurement Uncertainty (±)|
|Impulse high voltage||Peak Voltage||50 kV - 500 kV||1.1%|
|AC high voltage||AC high voltage||5 kV - 200 kV||0.66%|
|DC high voltage||DC high voltage||5 kV - 150 kV||0.10%|
|> 150 kV - 270 kV||0.60%|
|Current Transformer||Ratio Error||Primary current: 5 A - 2000 A; Secondary current: 5 A||0.05%|
|Voltage Transformer||Ratio Error||Primary voltage: 3.3 kV - 11 kV; Secondary voltage: 110 V||0.05%|